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I'm building a small wood shop in my garage. I want to put in a reasonable amount of power without going totally overboard. I prewired a 10/3 feed for 30A subpanel, so that is a possible constraint in how big I go.

For general use I was thinking of a pair of 20A 120v circuits for the workbench area. Most power I could see myself consuming is a tablesaw plus a shop vac at the same time, so two circuits seems like a must to me.

For the 240v circuits I'm somewhat clueless. Do I want 15A 240v or 20A 240v? I do not have any 240v tools right now but would like to future proof. Also does each 240v receptacle have to be on its own circuit or can they be on a branch circuit?

I'm under the 2018 CEC and will be pulling a permit. AFCI rules will apply since it is an attached garage. I'm dreading it somewhat since I do have some older tools that trip AFCI breakers, but not much I can do if I want to be compliant. Luckily there is an existing circuit in the garage that is non-AFCI that if I don't touch I can keep, but the entire garage is on it so I don't expect it to be super useful, but might get me by with a problematic tool.
 

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240 volt circuits are usually specific to the tool being used. It is hard guess what might be needed. I would install the 20 amp circuits and wait on the 240 volt circuit until you actually have need for them.
 

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Big Dog
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I to work out of my garage.

A few years ago, had my existing Federal Pacific fire hazard panel box replaced with a new 200 amp GE system. This included the ground rods, feed line and all the circuit breakers.

I installed a dedicated 120v 20 amp circuit for the three outlets I currently have.

The most power draw I have concurrently is a single power tool and shop vacuum (Rigid WD1450 Wet/Dry) and I have never had a breaker trip. This includes when running my 25+ year old 3 hp Craftsman table saw with the shop vac.
 
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