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What size (rating) wire do I need to run from the breaker panel to where the stove plugs in? Also my existing wire that ran to the stove is aluminum I had to cut it and disconnect it because the stove has moved... does it matter at the breaker panel if im using copper wire when all other wiring in house is aluminum ? Do I need to change anything in regards to the breaker panel where the new copper wire will be going?

The switch says 40Amps on it.

The existing Aluminum wire is pretty thick and it says on it NMD 7 300 volts. So do I just buy the equivalent in copper?
 

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You now need a 4 cond. cable, 2 hots, a neutral and a ground.
The breaker size ditates that you can use an 8/3 with gorund, copper cable for the stove.
You may have to change the the plug on the stove from a 3 wire to a 4 wire, and buy the matching receptacle.
 

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Also my existing wire that ran to the stove is aluminum I had to cut it and disconnect it because the stove has moved... does it matter at the breaker panel if im using copper wire when all other wiring in house is aluminum ?
Nope .. connect the cable in the breaker panel just like the alumimum one. Stay focused while your working in that panel understand that the main breaker lugs will remain hot even if the main breaker is turned off. Don't attempt to wire the cable without the main shut down.

As Jbfan said 8/3 G Nm-b is all you need for a 40 amp range branch circuit ... 6/3 G NM-b will set you up for a 50 or 60 amp branch circuit for some of the more energy hungry ranges and anything less. You can keep the 40 amp breaker regardless but if installing a new range someday that requires a 50 amp or 60 amp branch circuit you will need to change out the 40 amp breaker.
 
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