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As far as building a wall, you can put it anywhere subject to enough windows for light and ventilation in the rooms on each side and minimum floor space for each room on either side and enough means of exit. These rules vary from one city to another. In most cases a bedroom may not have its only exit through a bathroom or another bedroom. A book called the International Residential Code gives the minimum standards for construction.

If the wall has a door in it then any exit requirements are satisfied.

You build a framing generally using 2x4's and then you put paneling, usually drywall, over it. In its simplest form the framing consists of a 2x4 flat on the ceiling, a 2x4 flat on the floor, and upright studs perpendicular to the wall surfaces and 16 inches apart including one at each end, against the abutting walls.

You will need to add electrical outlets generally no more than 6 feet from a doorway and no more than 12 feet from the next outlet (not measuring diagonally across the floor). A section of wall between two doors must have an outlet unless it is less than two feet wide.

If you add a wall where none was before and as a complete project then your wall is "non-load-bearing" and the construction requirements are less rigid compared with a "load bearing" wall.
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