Assuming that there IS enough reserve amperage on the existing receptacle's circuit (check and make sure), and assuming that this particular receptacle is the end of a run (which is the only way it would have screws available to do this without pigtailing), I would take a a piece of 12-2 or 14-2, depending on breaker capacity, up to the switch box then up to the light fixture. In the switch box, break the HOT(black usually) wire, not the neutral, and connect it to the switch. Connect the light fixture and you're done.
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