If it were moisture coming up through the concrete, it wouldn't dry up that quickly.
I think what you saw in that picture you posted was condensation forming on the SURFACE of the concrete. You have to remember concrete is heavy as sin. It cools down at night, and it takes a good few hours for it's surface to warm up during the day. During that time, as the air temperature (and humidity) rises, condensation will form on the still cold concrete. That makes the surface of the concrete wet, and it's easy to mistake that for moisture rising up through the concrete.
Also, if you live where temperatures drop below freezing in winter, then the water expanding as it freezes inside the concrete will cause something called "spalling" where the surface of the concrete breaks off in chips. Condensation on the surface of the concrete won't cause spalling because the moisture isn't deep enough in the concrete.
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