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I’m finishing an unfinished basement, 1970s construction. There is an H shaped structural support system. Down the Center of the house are two support beams, which are quadruple laminated 2x10. The end of the the support beam is nailed into a triple laminated support beam running across the width of the house. I discovered that the ends of several of these support beams are unsupported. The most recent discovery is on the video linked below. The circle on the diagram (not to scale) shows the location of the unsupported beam. Apparently, we have structural ductwork.

So why hasn’t the house fallen down?

Essentially, the beams running the width of the house are carrying the weight of the support beams running the length of the house. The stability of this system rests on the stability of the nails used to join the beams. I want to replace our structural ductwork with a structural column, but there is a non structural wall that may be providing structural support.
My plan is to put columns on either side of the “T”, remove the support, and replace the c support with a single steel column.

What are your thoughts?
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Are 2x10s beams or joists? Head of T may be a header and leg of T may be just hanging off it. Obviously sheetmetal can't be carrying any load so, even if it's a joke, adding it to the question is confusing. I suggest a carpenter to see what's what and if a post is even necessary. If it is, a footing probably needs to be added.
 

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The beam on top of the wall is more than one ply, and may have been built up in place. IOW, there may be more than you see attaching the beams together. Anyway, you should be ok removing a short section of the wall between the corner of the wall and the post/column at the tee, but the columns supporting the beam need to stay in place.
 

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Not enough info. There is that CMU area between each of the longitudinal beams that may have something to do with all the beams. But in general, you shouldn't be placing columns here and there without a review of the slab/foundation. You would need a footing to carry point loads, but whether you are actually adding any new significant point loads depends on the existing structural layout.
 

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As mentioned in post 6, you don’t mention anything about the slab, which is typically not a support unless the slab has been reinforced in some way. 2x4 walls built like that, and obviously newer than the beams above are probably not supporting, even if they are tight and apparently bearing some load. It’s possible the framer just put in wood that was taller than needed and squished it in there with a hammer, maybe exerting some force on the floor below and beams above, but that doesn’t make it “supporting”.
 
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