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How are wall studs attached to the sole plate at the bottom of the wall? It looks awkward, the only way I can see is either with plates or by driving in nails at a 45 degree angle . From what I can see in constructions sites there arent too many plates down there .

It seems like a critical place in the frame , a couple of nails at 45 degrees doesnt seem right.
 

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If you prebuild the wall (very common), it is common practice to drive two 16p nails into the stud through the sole plate from the bottom. If the sole plate is already in place, you can toenail the stud in, with 2 nails per side (4 total). Or you can use Simpson connecting brackets.
 

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The weakest attachment is driving from the bottom. Toenailing is actually very strong. You can stand a toenailed wall up even in a moderate wind and it will stand by itself. You cannot do this with a wall that has been nailed to the plate first and then stood up. You'd be surprised how hard those toenails come out. On another note, in some areas special tie downs and strapping is needed to withstand hurricane force winds.
 

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Technically toenailing should be done at 30 degrees from the vertical, per the NDS.

Simpson connectors are always preferred, because it tends to keeps the nails in shear only.
 
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