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I have searched the forum and found a similar post but not an answer.
I am planning a 16x16 1 story screened porch and it will be attached to my 2 story vinyl sided house.
I am using a gable roof where rafters run parallel to house with a ridge board.
I will be using either collar ties or joists (can't decide which one) but I know I'll need one or the other.
I've seen an option where the end rafters at the house end were fastened together and the ridge board was hung from them with a joist hanger and an option where the last rafters are attached to the ridge board like all others.
No sure which option to go with.

Also how should the rafters (and ridge board) be attached to the house?
 

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Either or, just remove the house siding to install rafters first. Collar ties (in upper 1/3 of roof height) are useless, you will need rafter ties (in lower 1/3 of height to keep walls from spreading out) or a structural ridge beam, get a permit, if required, just for the liability and framing inspection.

Gary
 

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Your ridge board is not load bearing, nor should you need one. For 8' ceiling span, all you need is 2x6 rafter and collar tie (helps with mid point sag). If 2x8 and ceiling joists alone should be fine. Check the rafter span chart. I'm in NJ and moderate snow load. My rafters were 3.5:12 and about 13'x2x6.
House side rafter can be nailed to the wall studs.
Flashing the roof to the existing wall is little more involved than ending with the step flashing under the shingles. Finehomebuilding has photo of how which involves (from memory) triple or more flashing. Esp with a vinyl siding. There is even last step flashing that looks like a funnel that kicks the water away from this point.
 
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