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No.

If it's the only thing on the circuit 210.21(B)(1) applies:
A single receptacle installed on an individual branch circuit shall have an ampere rating not less than that of the branch circuit.
There are exceptions for welders and some motors.

If there's more than one outlet on the circuit then (B)(3) applies giving the allowable receptacle ratings and only 30A is allowed on 30A.

What you can do (if this is the only thing on the circuit), is change the breaker to 20A and turn it into a 20A circuit.
 

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Naildriver
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Not to mention bending #10 wire around the screws of a receptacle can be a beast. Of course we don't know why you have a 30 amp breaker in the first place.
 

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Maybe heard a rumor that outdoor AC units need 120V receptacles. That's not quite true, the A/C circuit is not allowed to have any receptacles. What Code is saying is one of your house's regular outdoor receptacles used for BBQs and yard work needs to be within 25’ of the heat pump so the maintainer has a place to plug in a vacuum pump.

Genearally 30A circuits are never allowed to have receptacle loads because they are hardwired to a large load which takes >50% of circuit ampacity. So no receptacles.

However if the load is itself a plug-in load, i.e. dryer, there is no limit to the number of 30A general-purpose receptacles on a 30A circuit. But they must all be 30A receptacles.

If you find an adapter cable from a NEMA 14-30 plug to common receptacles, well just make sure it is UL Listed and you're all good.
 

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leo.harrison - if you tell us what your plans are or what it is you are trying to accomplish we may be able to suggest something better and not so dangerous. Using a 20amp rated receptacle on a 30amp circuit is asking for trouble from the start. Don't do it.
 

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There really should never be an adaptor or extension cord with a lower amperage rated (female) receptacle wired to a higher rated (male) plug (violating the NEC branch circuit receptacle complement table) without having a box with overcurrent protection for the receptacle in the middle i.e. the assembly is a portable subpanel.
 
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