nap -- Naah. I think even 1/2" emt on floor would be a trip hazard and there's no reason to wire a new circuit when I've already got 240 to the garage. Besides, the panel is a pain to get to and it's a full SqD QO which means buying another tandem which is spendy.
You would use the same breaker as the welder recep is currently using, or at least the same slots if you need to change the rating.
and if placed well, a conduit on the floor is much less of a hassle as a cord hanging from the ceiling. You can alway make some runner boards to ramp the height.
I tend to feed a table saw coming in at the rear of the table (exit side) and in line with the blade pretty much. That is the least used floor area around a table saw.
It won't bog down ripping 2x wet DF or any sort of hardwood
You will get better performance out of the saw but don't get your hopes too high. I have a 2HP cabinet saw that runs on 240V and it still bogs down when cutting through some hardwood. In hindsight, I wish I would have spent the extra $300 and got the 3HP.