I don't roof in Alaska but I would think you would want a black roof to absorb the heat and help melt the snow off the roof.
Nothing is wrong with any of the materials that you mentioned. What you have to understand is that all will have various specs which determine the longevitiy of the roofing system. For example comparing a 10 year modifiued bitumen to a 30 year EPDM or comparing a 20 year modified bitumen to a 15 year BUR just isn't fair no matter how you look at it. So the first place you should start is in determining what your budget can afford.
On a personal prefrence, I prefer single ply roof membranes such as EPDM. As a matter of fact I prefer thermoplastics like PVC and TPO because of the heat welded seams, but having said that the EPDM membrane will last forever, and the seams will last 20 years if taped, 30 years if double sealed. Plus single ply will have less seams than modified bitumen or BUR.
That's not to say single ply is better, because if the roofer installing it isn't very familair with it; it just won't last. This may answer some of your questions Low Slope Roofing
or Frequently Asked Flat Roofing Questions