Of course it's not gonna stick. That adhesive is pressure-sensitive and only works on horizontal surfaces. Won't work on walls either. It should work if you spread a fine film of a thick-bodied mastic such as 'cove-base' adhesive. And yes, it's a bad idea regardless.
Why vinyl tile on a ceiling....had to ask.
TILE GUY - retired- TROY, MI - Method & Product suitability consulting.