3m painters tape is not very sticky. If the area is low traffic (not likely to get disturbed/damaged) and not in direct sunlight or near a vent/airstream, you can put it on more than a week in advance.
Anything more than a few weeks, and you can damage the underlying paint. However, it should not be a major concern.
If it is in direct sunlight or near an airstream, it can dry out and loose adhesion.