I don't think that I'm understanding what you said but this is how you would do it if it is fed at the light.
1 - Separate all the wires
2 - Now the 14/2 that has the white with the black tape on it keep that white wire and black wire off to the side for a moment.
3 - Now splice all the whites together
4 - Splice the black wires together and add the white wire with black tape to that splice.
5 - Now the white from the fan will spice with the whites that are spliced together.
6 - The remaining black wire from the 14/2 that has the white with black tape. That black will splice to the black of the fan.
You are all set from there. If the fan still doesn't work you might want to check to make sure you didn't blow it.