The basic answer is because it's drawing too much current for your breaker to handle it and the breaker trips on overload. Is the breaker a 20A or 15A breaker?
The question to answer is why is it tripping on overload.
Is this brand new? If so, try and find a 20A circuit with little existing load on it and see if the breaker holds.
Is this older and just starting to happen? Maybe dust the cobwebs off your compressor. Do some maintenance on it and try again.
I was having this same issue with an older compressor at home. I could not keep it running. The problem? It sat outside in the cold overnight and I have not done any maintenance on it for a long time. I need to oil/grease etc whatever I can and not let it sit outside in the cold weather. It's just sluggish.
By design, circuit breakers don't always trip the instant the current exceeds the ampere rating. A common design uses a bi-metallic strip (like a mechanical thermostat, or the "blinker bulbs" in old Christmas tree lights) which heats up as current flows through it. Eventually it heats up enough to open the circuit.
A result of this is that a small over-current (say 1A on a 20A circuit) will take a long time to heat up enough to trip, while a large overcurrent (100A for example) will heat and trip very quickly.
Your compressor might be just slightly over the rated current for the breaker. It won't trip immediately, but after 10 seconds heats up enough to cause the breaker to trip, and the circuit to open.
Is the breaker 15 or 20 amps?
Is the wiring 12 or 14 gauge?
When was the last time you changed the oil?
Is it in a cold garage? If so, you may need a lighter weight oil, but I would check with the manufacturer before changing to a lighter weight.
Do you have an ampmeter?
How long has it been doing this?
Are you using an extension cord?