Outside next to my electric meter I have a panel with incoming 240 service. I want to split this to two 120 to so I can run 2-3 20a breakers to my shed/workspace and a couple 20a circuits to my deck/enclosed patio which has refrigerator tv and a few other electrical devices. Can someone please tell me how I would do this split at the panel
You must have a neutral in order to make a pair of 120 volt circuits out of a 240 volt line.
If your main disconnect switch is at that location then a neutral will run from there down to your house panel which is now technically a subpanel. Just downstream of your main disconnect there you can wire in additional 120 and/or 240 volt lines and run them to subpanels in your various detached buildings, one feed -- 4 wire for 120/240 (hot, hot, neutral, ground) or 3 wire for 120 volt only (hot, neutral, ground) -- per building.
You may not run a feed from there to a patio or other location attached to your house given the one feed per building rule. Instead you must run the lines from the panel in your house.
Your city may require a special permit or a separate permit to do work upstream of your main disconnect switch. In addition you may need to have your power company (sometimes abbreviated POCO) disconnect your service during that part of your project.
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