Don't worry too much about the terms used, not everyone knows the difference between lighting outlets and receptacle outlets either.
What one area calls something isn't always the same somewhere else.
When I tell my guys to "go pull the main" they know I just want the main breaker turned off.
Yes check your breakers, sounds like you may have tripped one.
Just two quick questions, did you install the duplex receptacle in a box? and is it a GFCI receptacle?
Most of the time when a wire is cut in the middle, there is not enough wire to bring into a box and make connections, I obviously do not know your setup and there may have been plenty to use.