Run a new 3 wire + ground cable from the new fan location to the switch. use 14/2 if 15 amp circuit and 12/3 if 20 amp circuit. Mount a fan rated junction box in the ceiling.
What happens next depends on how the switch and receptacles are currently wired.
Open the switch box and tell us all the wires and connections in there. If there is only a black and white and they are both connected to the switch then you will also need to tell us the wires in the receptacles as well. Are the receptacles switched on both sockets or is only one socket switched and the other stays on all the time? Is there only one switch that controls the receptacles?
Remember that when working on the switch, turn the power off except when testing for voltage. Don't check for voltage unless you are comfortable doing so. Also, before you dismantle anything, draw a diagram showing where every wire goes. That last step can save headaches later.