It should not be a problem. GFCI measures the current imbalance in the neutral, not the ground. In the absence of a neutral (240 Volts) the imbalance is measured on the phases. So the fact that your receptacle wiring provides no ground is not a problem. In fact, replacing with a GFCI is one of the ONLY acceptable methods to solve this problem.
To the surge suppressor: I don't think that it cares what device it is plugged into since a surge condition is a voltage problem, not a current one. The only thing I can see is if there is a gizmo in the surge suppressor that doesn't get along with the GFCI, causing a nuisance trip. I doubt it very much, but it wouldn't be dangerous. So...plug away, you should be fine.