Thank you for the quickly replies! I'm nearly certain the motor has failed. It needs a push to get moving and even then, it whines incredibly loud and won't keep speed long at all. The capacitor isn't visibly bad (no bulge or discoloration) but I'm no pro.
I have a Grainger not too far away. It sounds like you recommend going there rather than ordering from emotorstore.com. Ill give Grainger a try. Voltage, HP, RPM, and physical size are the big things, then? Sounds like a 3 or 4 speed will work if one of the speeds isn't used.
I took several pictures of the wiring before I disassembled anything. I think between those pictures, the wiring diagram on the old motor, and whatever comes with the new one I should be OK. Don't be surprised to see me posting wire diagram help in a few days though