I'm taking that picture from the doorway. Since the frame would have to be 8' tall, the brace on the bottom of your frame would have to stick out about 3 feet, which would get in the way of the doorway. It does give me something to think about though - I might be able to secure it into the concrete floor with bolts somehow. Perhaps with a smaller piece of angle iron or something.
You could use an heavy duty velcro made for rough surfaces. With enough strips and a lightweight insect screen type privacy screen I think it would work. You would sew or stape the one part of velcro to screen But it may take paint off when removed.