I don't think bamboo would grow that far north. If it will, then it would be good solution if you built a long low planter on the edge of the deck. It gros fast, it grows tall and it creates a great privacy screen. Uncontained it will take over your yard and you will live to rue the day.
Boxwoods are gorgeous but you'll be dead and in the ground by the time they are high enough to give you privacy. Privet grows faster but it does not do so well in partial shade.
Anything you put in planters, along the deck itself, is going to be a bit of a maintenance nightmare and you're also going to have a potential weight issue with planters large enough to hold 5' plus trees.
I would consider planting Leland cypress along your property line. They make a great screen, they grow relatively quickly, they are evergreen, and they won't be taking room up on your deck. Perhaps intersperse them with some taller growing varieties of holly for variety.
If you want something sooner rather than later, then consider building a trellis to give you some privacy right on the deck: